Examining reliability, validity, and practicality are the three technical characteristics of an entrance test which demonstrate the usefulness and quality of the test (Mohajan, 2017). These features assess and evaluate the suitability of the entrance exam. An entrance test is said to be good when the measure of the test is reliable or consistent, which means that if the test were to be taken again, the results of the test would come as similar score; the test should evaluate what it wants to assess according to the need of the question, for instance, testing mental ability only assess mental ability test and nothing else; the test must be relevant to the specified job, which means that the test assesses the characteristics which are significant for the job; and by utilizing the test, better decisions can be produced for effective employment of individuals, an example of this is that arithmetic test is employed to assist in choosing skilled staffs for a particular job that needs the better knowledge and understanding of operations in arithmetic.
Reliability of a test is referred to the characteristics of evaluation of the test to measure the dependability and consistency of the test (Bolarinwa, 2015). To check the consistency of a test, the test should be taken again and check if the results are similar or not. Identical results show the reliable characteristics of the test. Some of the possible causes of not getting identical results of tests taken every time are –
Techniques used for assessing the reliability test show consistent, dependable and repeatable information regarding individuals. And to interpret the test results and make useful decisions regarding career, one needs to utilize reliable techniques, which eventually brings the assessment principle.
Each reliability estimate is affected by the various sources of error of measurement. Reporting the estimates of the reliability test, which is an important task for a test’s relevancy, is the test developer’s duty. And before selecting a test for use, it is important to have a look at the test manual and to go through the independent reviews, which help in finding the acceptability of the reliability test. 4 types of estimates of reliability test are discussed below –
The validity of a test explains the characteristic of the measurement of the test and the extent of the characteristic. It is another significant problem in choosing a test. It entails the characteristics of the test if it is related to the requirements and qualifications of the job (Almanasreh et al., 2019). It also helps understand the meaning of the result evaluated by the test. Evidence of validity demonstrates the connection between the job and the performance of the test. It also assists in predicting or concluding an individual’s result by looking at their test result. Individuals who score high perform well compared to those who score low, so it also helps me to find a valid predictor depending on the performance of the job. It also explains the extent to which certain specific predictions or conclusions can be made regarding individuals depending on their results. Specifically, it shows the test’s usefulness. Test validity tells if the test in a specific condition is good, while reliability indicates the trustworthiness of a test score. The conclusion for a test can only be valid if the test-taker is sure about the reliability of the test. It is only always important sometimes for a test to be valid, even if it is reliable. The test-taker must be careful while selecting the test by checking the reliability and validity according to the condition. The validity of a test is developed by referring to particular groups. And the groups formed are known as reference groups, and it is not necessary for the measurement of the tests to be valid for different reference groups. For instance, a measurement of the test is designed to determine the manager`s performance in conditions which requires the ability to problem-solving and might not permit the test-taker to predict meaningful and valid responses regarding the employees` performance. Considering another example, two different techniques of problem-solving ability are needed for two positions that are different, or the extent of reading of the test may also not be acceptable for applicants, then the scores of the test are valid for the managers, but it may not be valid for employees.
Three methods are significant in conducting the validation of a test. Each validation study needs to be in appropriate conditions, for which guidelines are discussed below.
The practicality of a test describes the easy method for designing, administering, scoring and interpreting the test results (Bodilsen et al., 2015). In other words, we can explain this by referring to the time, money and effort involved in taking a test. A test has to be practical, and it does not matter how much the test is reliable or valid. As it is relatively inexpensive, the delivery is less economical. The test layout must be understandable and easily followed. It also shows appropriate stability within a defined time frame and is easier to operate. The right process of evaluation is time-efficient as well as specified.
This part explains the overall summary of an entrance test’s reliability, practicability and validity. These three are the important features of examining the usefulness and quality of a test. The quality of a test is said to be good only if all three characteristics of the test are obtained. Reliability of a test is referred to the characteristics of evaluation of the test to measure the dependability and consistency of the test. Reasons for not obtaining similar results depend on the temporary state of mind of the test-taker, test forms, environmental factors and multiple raters. And the 4 types of reliability estimates are test-retest reliability, alternate versions reliability, internal consistency reliability and inter-rater reliability. The validity of a test explains the characteristic of the measurement of the test and the extent of the characteristic. Three validation studies are discussed: construct validity, criterion validity and content validity. The practicality of a test describes the easy method for designing, administering, scoring and interpreting the test results. A test has to be practical, and it does not matter how much the test is reliable or valid.
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