Cancer is a collection of various diseases and not only a single disease. It is a disease which can occur in any part of the human body. It is mainly a disease of genes present in the human body’s cells. The work of these genes is to control the working of the cells. Yet, any changes in the genes can be the reason for the malfunctioning of cells, making them grow bigger and split when they should not and even making them live longer when they should not.
At last, these types of abnormal cells become cancer. Acquiring knowledge of genetic changes is one of the reasons for developing cancer, whereas cancer statistics is another as it aids the scientists to make them understand that cancer is still a burden on our society. This research is based on statistics and informs us about the total number of individuals getting diagnosed with it, the total number of individuals dying from this disease every year, and the total number of individuals living after getting diagnosed and treated. Changes in the total number of cancer statistics throughout the span aid scientists in finding the areas where there is a need for advancement or progress. The statistics for cancer aid scientists in understanding the health discrepancy of cancer. Some examples of health discrepancies involve the more significant number of death rates, using proven screening tests less frequently, and even finding cases of high rates of diagnosis of advanced cancer. And these are mainly found in several particular groups of people. Even after so many developments in medical and health science, cancer still plays a major role in many deaths each passing year. But technological advances continuously try hard to change the scenario and circumstances.
Cancer does not need to have any specific reason to develop. Some main factors that enhance the risk of developing cancer include smoking habits, family members already dealing with cancer, and radiation exposure. One of the best methods to prevent this disease is only by avoiding the risk factors which ultimately lead to the development of the disease.
It is a disease that is very much hard to get treated. Yet, new strategies and technological advances have been discovered, and people need to focus on their health more than anything else. This needs to focus on the individual patients and thus will help in acquiring their battle of life. And it will also help the patient or the individual to make the best possible decision for you.
Medical advancements and refinement of surgeries in cancer patients, along with the utilisation of targeted drugs and various medications after and before the surgery, ultimately enhance the conditions of cancer patients, and it continues to grow and develop. Several studies compare the consequences of various methods of surgery aided in guiding doctors by choosing the tools and techniques that are likely to give appropriate outcomes in the long term.
VATS Lobectomy for lung cancer – At the time of lobectomy, a part of the lobe in the lung is mainly impacted by cancer, which is eliminated. This technique is called VATS lobectomy, which involves the procedure of general anaesthesia and also includes a small period of recovery compared to open surgery for lung cancer. Several institutes have recognised this method as the most preferred technique to treat lung cancer in the early stage. Thoracoscope, a tiny tube with a camera and light connected at its end, is put in between the ribs of the human body with the help of a small incision. After this, the affected tissue in the lung is removed with the help of some special techniques.
MinION Genetic Sequencing during surgery – Cells of cancer include genetic mutations. During surgery, a portable and long-read platform, MinION, helps detect cell cancer in real-time. When the tissue passes by the hole, the DNA material of the cell is reflected by the current changes. By analysing the modifications in ionic currents, the nanopore sequencer can identify the existence of cancer cells. This cancer treatment technique only takes a little time to detect whether the sample includes cancer or normal cells. This technique will aid neurosurgeons in identifying the tumour cells present in the brain samples.
Immunotherapy is considered the latest advance in the treatment of cancer. With the latest advancements, the human body’s immune system is utilised to fight against cancer. As a medical advancement, immunotherapy is utilised to treat various cancer patients. Treatment of this disease often includes other treatments like chemotherapy sessions or surgery. This medical advancement helps treat various types of cancer like lung cancer, breast cancer, throat cancer, melanoma skin cancer, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer and bladder cancer and so on.
Immunotherapies are of different types. Some immunotherapy types help stimulate the immune system of the body so that they can attack cancer cells. In contrast, the other types of immunotherapy assist the human body’s immune system by making them identify the cells attacked by cancer. Immunotherapy is considered a safe method for treating patients suffering from different types of cancer. Yet, some possible side-effects of this treatment method exist that cannot be ignored in any condition. Patients getting treated with immunotherapy frequently feel like having fever, fatigue and nausea. Also, the risk of autoimmune disease develops if the patient is treated with immunotherapy. It is a powerful technique for treating patients dealing with cancer, and it helps them modify the landscape of cancer treatment. Meanwhile, there still exist several risks and side effects of the medical advances, yet it gives novel hope to patients dealing with cancer.
This is another latest advancement in medical science in the treatment of cancer. This therapy mainly targets specific genes especially involved in developing cancer cells. This therapy is utilised in treating various cancer types and is frequently utilised along with combining other treatments like radiation or surgery. This therapy helps by treating the cells of cancer, which become reluctant to different treatments. There are various targeted therapies, and new targeted therapies are getting developed. And most of these therapies are becoming successful in treating various types of cancer. Several commonly used targeted drugs in the treatment of lung cancer patients are Iressa (gefitinib), Tagrisso (osimertinib) and Tarceva (erlotinib). For the treatment of breast cancer, the drugs that are commonly used are Tykerb (lapatinib), Afinitor (everolimus) and Kadcyla (ado-trastuzumab).
Kinase Inhibitors – Unfunctional protein kinases are mainly included in various types of cancer, and this protein is specifically the main target of cancer drugs. Drugs such as Tabrecta (capmatinib) and Rozlytrek (entrectinib) mainly treat metastatic non-small lung cancer cells. Entrectinib (Rozlytrek) is utilised explicitly for treating non-small cells of lung cancer, which shows positive indications for ROS1, which is mainly a receptor tyrosine kinase. Capmatinib (Tabrecta) is also a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that helps shrink tumours involving a MET mutation. This MET gene usually produces a receptor tyrosine kinase, which gets involved in the proliferation of cells and the survival of cells.
PARP Inhibitors – Several drugs, like Zejula, are utilised to treat ovary cancer patients. This drug helps by hampering the enzymatic functions of the enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). An investigation report shows that 533 patients with ovary cancer had Zejula drug for treatment. This drug ultimately enhanced the experienced time without having any symptoms compared with other standard therapies for cancer treatment.
Therapy of radiation is utilised as a supplement for the treatment of cancer. More efficient, new and targeted radiotherapies are mainly used for the early and advanced diagnosis of cancer patients.
SABR for Metastatic Cancer – Studies suggest that the patients taking Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy along with standard care indicated an enhanced survival rate compared to those who are taking alleviating standard care.
SABR for untreatable Early-stage lung cancer – Patients who have cancer but are not surgical get an alternative by Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy, which includes excellent controls and is well tolerated.
Photodynamic therapy in medical sciences is developed to treat patients of cancer by utilising a light-activated drug which aids in killing the cells of cancer. Usually, this therapy takes around two or more sessions to kill the cancer cells. The very initial session of photodynamic therapy is to put light-activated drugs into the skin of the human body. And the next session exposes the cancer cells to a specific light, which makes the drug function efficiently and helps kill more cancer cells. When this photosensitiser or light-sensitive drug is revealed to light, a chemical reaction is produced, which helps kill cancer cells.
These can be utilised in treating different cancers, such as skin, pancreatic, lung, bladder, etc. Photodynamic therapy, along with other treatments for cancer like chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery. This technique of treating cancer patients is considered safe as well as an efficient way of treatment for most of the patients who have cancer. This photodynamic therapy also has several side effects and helps treat cancer that spreads to other body parts.
This therapy is made with the help of two different forms of cancer therapy cooperatively. Novel drugs are mainly taken with chemotherapy sessions to enhance the results. This cancer treatment technique has become the standard for treating several specific kinds of cancer. The most recent instance is the combination of Avastin and Tecentriq for treating liver cancer.
Hyperthermia is a treatment technique for treating patients with cancer. This treatment technique utilises heat to kill and damage the cells of cancer. The heat is given to the patients externally using radiofrequency waves or heat lamps or using probes or heated drugs. This treatment technique is an effective technique for treating various cancer types, including skin cancer, breast cancer and brain cancer and so on.
In summary, the recently developed treatment techniques for cancer patients are providing newer hope to many patients and their loved ones suffering from the pain of cancer. In modern times, even more options are available for cancer treatment, and the success rates of these new techniques are also getting high. Still, the research for cancer treatment is getting better, and tools for diagnosis are ongoing. Continual development of novel as well as more efficient techniques of treatment has a greater potential to treat cancer patients shortly.
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